Conversations with Snow and Ice


The Art and Science through Ukichiro Nakaya

"Science is a collaboration between humans and nature."


4. Investigation into Ice Crystals: "Ice is a metal"

The advantage of ice as experimental material is its transparency and low melting point. Consequently, ice can be used to conduct types of experi­ments that may be difficult to use metals for, such as an experiment at temperatures close to their melting points. "After the two-year study of single crystals of ice, I came to the conclusion that can be summed up in one sentence: ice is a metal."

Ukichiro Nakaya, excerpt from Ice of the Arctic (Translation by Sakiko Nakaya Olsen)